Tag Archives: Greek



William A. Dillard
Parson to Person

Some questions are so important that one must know the answers. One question to which I refer is resounded in Holy Writ, but it is also penned quite pointedly in the lyrics of a classic hymn. “What will you do with Jesus, neutral you cannot be. One day your heart will be asking, ‘what will He do with me.’” Could there be a more relevant and pressing question on a greater number of people than this? Jesus plainly declared that those who deny Him, He will deny before the Father. Matt. 10:33. 

Jesus needs to be in the forefront of life.  Think about this incident. “And there were certain Greeks among them that came up to worship at the feast: “The same came therefore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus.” John 12:20-21. It occurs to this writer that the wholesale rejection of organized religion by the majority of our nation’s population is partly due to the obscurity of Jesus. Please consider: 

  * Great edifices with stained glass windows and air conditioned environment are pointed to with pride, but where is Jesus? 

* Social programs designed to busy one abound, but where is Jesus?  

* The determination to present a non-offensive religion a lost society may keep the pews warm and the coffers full, but where is Jesus? 

* Pulpits may be ablaze with educated homilies, but where is Jesus?

    Strong witnessing and preaching about Jesus is needed! Men must know they are lost without Him, and that His sweet grace is freely offered to them for the trusting. 

Consider the contrast of long ago with today’s society. Zacchaeus was so excited about the possibility of seeing Jesus that he climbed a tree to do it. Believers were so excited over the prospect of bringing a palsied man to Jesus that they cut a large hole in the roof of the house where He was. Multitudes followed Jesus to hear Him, and to witness His works without regard for food or lodging. 

Today, people are so complacent about Jesus they are more likely to go fishing or to visit relatives than to meet with Him for worship. They will avoid any discussion of the need of salvation among their fellows for fear of being considered a radical. Often church meetings are esteemed so unimportant that members will look for excuses to be absent. Is the power of God diminished, or have we faked people into the church who are incapable of spiritual appreciation and excitement? 

These things may be easily dismissed by nominal, worldly-minded “Christians,” but judgment flies toward earth on swift wings.  Dear friends, “What will you do with Jesus? Neutral you cannot be! One day your heart will be asking: ‘What will He do with me?’”  Will you be happy with reciprocation?

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My good friend Pastor Jim Harris is Author of this explanation.



Jim Harris


“Looking for that happy, glad expectation, even the glorious appearance of the great God, even our Savior Jesus Christ.”

Titus 2:13 (Harris Translation)


There are certain words and certain constructions in the Greek text that should thrill our hearts. The word that is translated “hope” (here translated “expectation”) is one of them. The Greek word is “elpis” and refers to a glad expectation. It expresses the thought of the assurance of some future good. It is not “iffy,” as is often heard in our “wishful thinking,” “I hope it will be good weather today,” etc. We do not know for sure whether the weather will be good or not, but our desire is that it will be so. Instead, “elpis” expresses a certainty. We KNOW that Jesus is coming. We are assured of it. We just don’t know when it will take place. Also, there is a construction in the Greek that presents the word “and” essentially as an equal mark, showing the phrases on each side of it to be equal. That is expressed by the use of the word “even” in the above translation. Our glad expectation is the coming of Jesus, the Son, who is co-equal and co-eternal with God, the Father. “Evenso, Come, Lord Jesus.”


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Stennett, Samuel


He followed his father


The name “Stennett” for many years was associated with “Baptist preacher” in England, for Samuel Stennett’s “great-grandfather Edward, his grandfather Joseph, and his father…whose name was also Joseph, were well known Baptist ministers and citizens in that day.” Also his brother Joseph Stennett, and his son, Joseph, were also Baptist ministers.” Samuel however was the most famous of this preaching family. Born in Exeter, he became proficient in the Greek, Latin, and Oriental languages. He fell under conviction as a young man and was baptized by his father which began an association with the Baptist church in Little Wild Street that would last for over fifty years. On June 30, 1747 the church called him to assist his father and ten years later he assumed the pastorate and was ordained on June 1, 1758, which was led by the famed theologian, John Gill. On entering the pastorate, he said to his congregation, “I tremble at the thought.” For forty-seven years Stennett served the church and was an outstanding leader for religious liberty. Numerical growth was experienced and the church buildings rebuilt. Stennett wrote several volumes, but more importantly, several of his hymns have survived the test of time one of which is, “On Jordan’s Stormy Banks I Stand.” Another is Majestic Sweetness Sits Enthroned.” These hymns of adoration and anticipation have lasted for more than two hundred years. The death of Mrs. Stennett was a great blow to the man of God. His sermons were especially remembered during that time for their blessing. He said to his son, “Christ is to me the Chief among ten thousand, and the altogether lovely.” On Aug. 25, 1795, at 68 years, he passed into glory and his body was buried in Bunhills Fields among the Baptist dissenters.


Dr. Greg J. Dixon from: This Day in Baptist History Vol. I: Cummins/Thompson/, p. 225.


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HEBREW – Sin (1)


The pictorial power of the Hebrew language,” writes one Hebrew authority, “is seldom exhibited more clearly than in connection with the various aspects of evil.” Of the four main words that indicate sin in the Hebrew, chātā’ (H2398) is used most often and means “to miss the mark.” It is used in this literal sense, for example, in Jdg_20:16, where Benjamin’s 700 left-handed slingers “could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss.” It also refers to breaking civil law (Gen_40:1, “offended”).
Human failure and sin, however, are the prominent focus of chātā’. Sin, therefore, means “missing the mark.” Which mark? God’s mark, the mark He sets as the standard, namely, His righteousness and commands. Just as an archer sets his sights on a specific target, it is God’s righteousness at which we “shoot” our arrows, but miss every time.
It is extremely significant that the Septuagint translates chātā’ using the Greek hamartanō (G264), which also means “to miss the mark.” The pivotal NT verse, of course, is Rom_3:23 : “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.” Again, what is the mark for which we shoot? The glory of God, which includes His righteousness and perfection but we always miss, whether deliberately or unintentionally. As Paul wrote earlier, “There is none righteous, no, not one” (Rom_3:10, paraphrasing Psa_14:3).
If there is one doctrine that has been diluted by modern thought, it is most certainly the doctrine of sin. Opinions vary from “a low self-esteem” and “psychological self-abuse” to simply “felt needs” and personal problems. Even worse, while the word sin, along with its other forms (sins, sinner, sinners, sinful), appears some 900 times in Scripture, many “preachers” refuse to even mention the term. When asked in a television interview about the gospel, one popular leader (who proudly never preaches on sin) said, “To me good news is letting people know that God loves them, Jesus came, that we can overcome any obstacle, that we can be forgiven for our mistakes. I don’t see how beating people down [apparently by preaching about sin] . . . helps them grow closer to God.”
That, however, is not the gospel, as we will see. Oh, how we need to “earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints” (Jud_1:3).
Scriptures for Study: Compare Rom_3:10-18 with the following OT passages, from which Paul either quotes or paraphrases: Psa_5:9; Psa_10:7; Psa_14:1-3; Psa_36:1; Psa_140:3; Isa_59:7-8. His indictment of the Jews has the authority of Scripture behind it.


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HEBREW – Blessed




The very first word we read in the book of Psalms is blessed. The Hebrew here is ’ešer (H835), a masculine noun meaning a person’s state of bliss. It’s never used of God, rather always of people, and is exclamatory in emphasis, as in “O the bliss of . . .” Most of its forty-four appearances are appropriately in the poetry of Psalms and Proverbs.


It is extremely significant that the Septuagint translates ’ešer using the Greek makarios, which our Lord used nine times in the Beatitudes (Mat_5:3-11). Many Bible teachers say this word just means “happy,” which is always circumstantial. It actually speaks of the far deeper idea of an inward contentedness not affected by circumstances (Php_4:11-13).


Of the many occurrences of ’ešer, one that immediately strikes us is Psa_1:1 : “Blessed is the man,” where the unknown psalmist distinguishes two lifestyles (February 23), one that is blessed and one that is not. We find in Psa_1:1-3 three realities that produce genuine bliss and contentment:


First, a path that is holy. In three distinct statements, the psalmist outlines holiness. The holy person first does not stroll with the “ungodly” (rāšā‘, H7563) people. He doesn’t associate with, listen to, or join those who are guilty before God and transgressors of His Law. Second, the holy person does not stand with sinners. Way is derek (February 23), a marked-out pattern of life, and “standeth” is ‘āmaḏ (H5975), which figuratively indicates living somewhere, standing, remaining there (e.g., Exo_8:22, dwell). The holy life, then, is one that does not remain in sin (1Jn_3:9, where “commit” is present tense, to “continually habitually commit sin”). Third, the holy person does not sit with the “scornful” (liys, H3887) person, that is, one who boasts, scoffs, mocks, and derides, as in showing or expressing utter contempt, in this case for the things of God.


Second, blessedness comes from a passion for Scripture. The blissful and contented person is one who takes delight (February 29) in God’s Word and his meditation (January 6) on it is the rule of life and his daily priority.


Third, blessedness comes from a prosperity dependent upon God. The image of sitting by a river is a graphic one, picturing nourishment, growth, fruitfulness, and much more. While “prosperity teachers” promise monetary riches, true prosperity is found in the spiritual riches we have in Christ (Eph_1:3-23).


Scriptures for Study: Read the following verses, noting what else brings bliss and true contentedness: Psa_2:12; Psa_32:1-2; Psa_112:1; Psa_119:1-2; Psa_127:4-5; Pro_3:13 (“happy”); Pro_8:32.




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James Smith Coleman

Lutheran’s Bible meant immersion

1827 – James Smith Coleman was born on Feb. 23, 1827, and was saved as just a boy in his native Kentucky.  He became known as the “Old War Horse” for good reason.  He refused calls to large city churches preferring to stay in the country ministering as pastor-evangelist to the hill people.  His great-grand parents had become Baptists when they came to America from Germany.  After reading Lutheran’s translation of the scriptures, they knew that the Greek baptizo with the German “taufen,” meant immersion.  James united with the Beaver Dam Baptist Church at age eleven, but at adulthood he forgot his call to preach and became county sheriff.  At a revival meeting the Holy Spirit burdened his heart again, and he resigned as sheriff and began preaching the gospel with great power.  His efforts produced converts every time he graced the pulpit.  He was especially a great debater and often put the pedobaptists to flight with his oratory and effective humor.
Dr. Greg J. Dixon, from: This Day in Baptist History Vol. I: Cummins Thompson /, pp. 74.

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Woman [and] Eve


Iššāh [and] Chawwāh


Today’s words will not please the militant feminists of our day, but God has done more for women than the so-called “feminist movement” could even dream of. Adam actually gave two names to the woman that God provided for him. The first, of course, was Woman (Gen_2:23), the Hebrew ’Iššāh (H802), which Adam himself defined as “taken out of Man.” She is, quite literally, a part of man. (See February 8 for another use of ’iššāh.)


While Greek, Roman, and Jewish culture all held women in low regard, God and His Word hold them in the highest. The OT specifically teaches that women are spiritually equal to men. The Mosaic Law was given to all Israel, women as well as men (Deu_1:1). Both were to teach it to their children (Deu_6:4-7; Pro_6:20). The protection of the law applied equally to women (cf. Exo_21:28-32). Women had inheritance rights (Num_36:1-12). Men and women alike participated in the Jewish religious feasts (Exo_12:3; Deu_16:9-15). The single greatest spiritual vow, the Nazirite vow, was open to both men and women (Num_6:2). Women were involved in spiritual service (Exo_38:8; Neh_7:67). Nor did God hesitate to deal directly with women (Gen_3:13; Gen_16:7-13; Jdg_13:3).


The second name Adam gave this Woman was Eve, a name that should truly bless the heart of every woman. It is the Hebrew Chawwāh (H2332), which is related to chāyāh (H2421, “to be alive”) and Adam expounds as “the mother of all living” (Gen_3:20), as she gave birth (life) to the entire human race (Gen_4:1-2). What a truth! Every wife is both an ’iššāh, who is dependent on a man for her living, and a Chawwāh, on whom every man is dependent for his life. The warm-hearted Walt Disney movie The Lion King contained a song titled “The Circle of Life,” but what we see here is the real circle of life. And God did (and continues to do) all this through one institution, marriage.


To each dear, godly lady who might be reading this, may God richly bless you as you bring life into this world for His glory.


Scriptures for Study: Read the verses mentioned in today’s study, meditating on the place God has given women and the implications of that truth.




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Hebrew – Man [and] Adam (1)




What a piece of work is a man! how noble in reason! how infinite in faculty! in form and moving how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals!” So wrote William Shakespeare. That is true, however, only because God alone did it all. We had nothing to do with it, regardless of the ramblings of the humanist.


A Greek word that perfectly illustrates this is poiēma (G4161, English “poem”), which Paul uses to refer to us as God’s “workmanship, created in Christ Jesus” (Eph_2:10). Another form of the word, poiētēs, refers to one who makes something or to a work of art. In ancient Greek this referred to an author or poet. So we are God’s work of art, masterpiece, or poem.


The Hebrew ’āḏām (H120) appears more than 550 times in the OT, 408 of which are translated man (“men” H121) and thirteen as Adam (AV). While its origin is unsure, it seems to be linked to ’āḏōm or ’āḏēm (H119), “to be red, ruddy, or dyed red.” A related word is used, for example, of David’s ruddy appearance (1Sa_16:12; 1Sa_17:42). Another clue is the Akkadian adamātu, “dark red soil,” which takes us immediately to Gen_2:7 : “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul,” picturing that man was created out of the very elements of the earth and is connected to it.


The word “formed” (yāsar, H3335) refers to fashioning or shaping something, as a potter fashions a vessel from the clay. The power of God then gave man a life that is unique over all Creation, making man in His image and likeness (Gen_1:26); while man is finite, he is still the reflection of such qualities as God’s personality, truth, wisdom, love, holiness, and justice. Once dead “Adamites,” we are now alive in Christ (1Co_15:22).


Another Creation occurs when Christ enters our life. We become the “new man” (Eph_2:15; Eph_4:24). The Greek kainos (G2537) anthropos (G444) speaks of man (as a species) becoming new in the sense of quality and having never existed before. We have truly been created new in Christ (2Co_5:17), with transformed character and habits. Indeed, “What a piece of work is a [spiritual] man!”


Scriptures for Study: Read Genesis 2. What observations can you note about man (Adam)? (Note: Man in Gen_2:23 is a different word, which we will examine tomorrow.)




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Hebrew Language – Lord




The Hebrew ’Aḏōnāy (H136) rendered Lord (initial cap and lowercase in contrast to initial cap and small caps for Yāhweh, ) in most English translations, appears well over 400 times. While the singular ’aḏōn is used also of men—Sarah referred to Abraham as “lord” (Gen_18:12) and his servants called him “master” (Gen_24:9-10), Ruth addressed Boaz as “lord” (Rth_2:13), as did Hannah address Eli (1Sa_1:15), and so forth—the “plural of majesty,” ’Aḏōnāy, is used only of God and speaks of His dominion, possession, and sovereignty.


It is extremely significant that the direct NT Greek equivalent is kurios (G2962), which is frequently applied to the Lord Jesus. Again, while “lord” is sometimes used as simply a title of honor, such as rabbi, teacher, master (Mat_10:24; cf. Luk_16:3), or even a husband (1Pe_3:6), when used of Jesus in a confessionalway, it without question refers to His divinity. The simple, but deeply profound, confession Kurios Iēsous (Lord Jesus) is rooted in the pre-Pauline Greek Christian community and is probably the oldest of all Christian creeds. Jesus is Lord!


Another startling fact is that in hundreds of instances, Lord (’Adōnāy) is actually coupled with either God (’Elōhiym; Psa_38:15; Psa_86:12; Dan_9:3; Dan_9:9; Dan_9:15) or “GOD” (Yehōwāh, instead of uppercase LORD; e.g., Gen_15:2; Gen_15:8; Psa_71:5; and more than 200 times in Ezekiel). This dramatically combines the various aspects of each divine name to paint a more graphic picture of who God is.


While a controversial issue, I would humbly submit that ’Adōnāy (and kurios by extension) being coupled with other names also further underscores the importance of emphasizing the principle of Lordship. In a day when the Lordship of Christ means very little in the thinking of many Christians, we must emphasize it all the more. The popular notion of “accepting Jesus as Savior but not as Lord until a later date” is foreign to the NT. Neither is it a historical position in the church; it is, in fact, a thoroughly modern invention, spawned by the relativism, pragmatism, and tolerance of our age. There is simply no salvation apart from Jesus as Lord (Rom_10:9-10). It is a staggering contradiction to say a person can believe in Jesus as Savior but reject Him as Lord simply because a change of life automatically results in a change of Lordship (2Co_5:17).


Scriptures for Study: Read Mar_8:34-38; Mar_12:28-34, and Luk_14:25-35, meditating on their deep significance.




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Notice the ability to use Greek and Hebrew in a legal setting which demands a precise under standing and ability to speak fluently in these two languages. Where is that type of language scholarship today?

Coxe, N. downloadNehemiah Coxe
1672 – Nehemiah Coxe was one of seven other men who were ordained to the gospel along with John Bunyan when he was set apart to the work of the ministry. He is described as a “very excellent, learned, and judicious divine.” Coxe was a native of Bedford and had been received into the church in June of 1669, and it is believed that he had been immersed by Bunyan. Coxe proved to be an able author and wrote several published treatises that were used of God. He refused a call to a nearby Baptist church in Hitchin, and in the course of time he is said to have been imprisoned at Bedford for preaching the Gospel without license. When Coxe was haled into court, an interesting thing happened. In earlier days Coxe had been a shoemaker, and thus was known in court as a “cordwainer.” The Rev. Mr. Coxe presented his own case before the court in the Greek language, and he further confounded the prosecution by responding to their charges in Hebrew. Coxe claimed the right to plead in what language he pleased. The judge dismissed the case saying, “Well, the cordwainer has wound us all up, gentlemen.” Later Coxe moved to London and supported himself in the medical profession. Ultimately he accepted a call to the joint-pastorate of a well-known Baptist church in London, called Petty France Baptist Church. In 1678 this church united with the Particular Baptist Association. Coxe attended as a messenger. In 1682 a great storm of persecution came down upon the church, but Dr. Coxe served the congregation faithfully with his co-pastor, William Collins, for at least twenty years.
Dr. Greg J. Dixon; adapted from: This Day in Baptist History Vol. I: Cummins Thompson /, pp. 28-29.

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